By Michael R. Pe Lindeburg

Is helping you arrange for the FE/FIT examination. Covers arithmetic, structures of devices, statics, dynamics, chemistry, fabric technological know-how, AC/DC electrical energy, structures modeling, machine technological know-how, and engineering economics and extra. Paper. DLC: Engineering - difficulties, workouts and so on.

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**Additional resources for 1001 Solved Engineering Fundamentals Problems (3rd Edition)**

**Example text**

Similar expressions may be obtained for flow in the y and z directions. dz ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z2 Under the laminar flow conditions that apply in seepage problems there is no change in volume and the above expression must equal zero: k x∂ 2h k y∂ 2h k z∂ 2h + + =0 ∂y 2 ∂x 2 ∂z2 This is the general expression for three-dimensional flow. In many seepage problems the analysis can be carried out in two dimensions, the y term usually being taken as zero so that the expression becomes: k x∂ 2h k z∂ 2h + =0 ∂x 2 ∂z2 If the soil is isotropic, kx = kz = k and the expression is: ∂ 2h ∂ 2h + =0 ∂x 2 ∂z2 An isotropic soil is a soil whose material properties are the same in all directions.

3 Seepage velocity The conduits of a soil are irregular and of small diameter – an average value of the diameter is D10/5. Any flow quantities calculated by the theory of pipe flow must be in error and it is necessary to think in terms of an average velocity through a given area of soil rather than specific velocities through particular conduits. If Q is the quantity of flow passing through an area A in time t, then the average velocity (v) is: v= Q At This average velocity is sometimes referred to as the seepage velocity.

The head loss, h, between two points along the length of the sample, distance l apart, is measured by means of a manometer (in practice there are more than just two manometer tappings). From Darcy’s law: q = Aki The unit quantity of flow, q= Q t The hydraulic gradient, i= h l and A = area of sample Permeability and Flow of Water in Soils 37 Overflow Water Time, t Filters h l Soil Q Fig. 3 The constant head permeameter. Hence k can be found from the expression k= q Ai or k= Ql tAh A series of readings can be obtained from each test and an average value of k determined.