By G. V. Samsonov

The publication we're proposing to American and different English­ conversing readers is a assessment of the paintings at the electron struc­ ture of components, alloys, and compounds, which was once began again within the fifties. This paintings steadily grew right into a method of principles at the electron constitution of condensed topic that's referred to now because the configurational version. This version is predicated at the assumption of the preferential formation of the main reliable configurations of the localized va­ lence electrons in condensed subject. The lifestyles of those solid configurations and the trade of electrons with the de­ localized (collective-state) subsystem determines these prop­ erties that are with regards to the electron constitution. The conclu­ sions which might be drawn from the purposes of the configura­ tional version are just qualitative yet they clarify relatively sincerely the character of assorted homes of condensed topic, and they're important within the look for fabrics with particular houses. the yank variation has been corrected and supplemented in lots of minor respects. furthermore, the chance was once taken to revise completely the part at the basics of the configura­ tional version within the gentle of the newest theoretical advancements. different components of the e-book were shortened to get rid of fabric which isn't of primary value or has now not but been de­ veloped sufficiently fully.

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The transition metals with partly filled d shells (in the free state) occupy a special position. Several models have been put forward to explain the electron structure of these elements. A satisfactory description of these metals and. of refractory compounds is provided by the configurational model. This is best illustrated by considering the phYSicochemical properties of these substances. CHAPTER I! Physicochemical Properties of Transition Metals and of Their Alloys and Compounds 3. Crystal structure and Polymorphism The crystal lattice symmetry is one of the most important characteristics of a solid and in many ways is related to the physicochemical properties of the solid.

Consequently, iron exists in two modifications which are almost equally stable (fcc and bcc structures) and the competition between these structures is responsible for the nature of the polymorphic transitions in iron. * The reduction in the importance of the d 5 configurations in the formation of the lattice gives rise to an hcp modification in the case of cobalt, which is followed by a transition to an fcc structure because the statistical weight of the d 10 configuration increases with temperature.

At higher temperatures, particularly at room temperature, this material transforms into white tin with a lower statistical weight of the sp configurations and a higher density of the delocalized electrons. It is possible that a sufficiently high density of the sp configurations is formed also in lead at very low temperatures and this would give rise to a diamond-like structure and semiconducting properties. 30 CHAPTER 1. CONFIGURATIONAL MODEL OF SOliDS In the case of boron, the statistical weight of the sp3 configurations is significantly lower than the corresponding weight for diamond and this is why the melting point, forbidden band width, and microhardness have lower values than in the case of diamond.

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A Configurational Model of Matter by G. V. Samsonov
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