By Yongquan Fan
High-Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) units became common in communications, from the embedded to high-performance computing platforms, and from on-chip to a large haul. checking out of HSSIs has been a tough subject due to sign integrity concerns, lengthy attempt time and the necessity of costly tools. Accelerating attempt, Validation and Debug of excessive velocity Serial Interfaces offers leading edge try and debug methods and unique directions on tips on how to arrive to useful try out of recent high-speed interfaces.
Accelerating try, Validation and Debug of excessive velocity Serial Interfaces first proposes a brand new set of rules that permits us to accomplish receiver try greater than a thousand occasions quicker. Then an under-sampling dependent transmitter try scheme is gifted. The scheme can adequately extract the transmitter jitter and end the complete transmitter attempt inside 100ms, whereas the attempt frequently takes seconds. The booklet additionally offers and exterior loopback-based trying out scheme, the place and FPGA-based BER tester and a singular jitter injection process are proposed. those schemes might be utilized to validate, try out and debug HSSIs with information price as much as 12.5Gbps at a decrease try out fee than natural ATE recommendations. additionally, the e-book introduces an efficieng scheme to enforce excessive functionality Gaussian noise turbines, appropriate for comparing BER functionality lower than noise conditions.
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Additional info for Accelerating Test, Validation and Debug of High Speed Serial Interfaces
The BER and jitter relationship can further be transferred to the BER and Q factor relationship. As shown in Fig- 26 2 Background ure 2-11(c), the receiver works at the crossing points of the bathtub curves. Therefore, we have t s = UI / 2 (2-6) UI = DJ + 2Q * RJ RMS (2-7) Q (x) defined in Equation (2-1) with x = BER . 5 * erfc( Q 2 ) (2-8) or Q = 2 * erfc −1 (2 * BER ) (2-9) Equations (2-8) and (2-9) directly link BER and Q factor. If we know one parameter, the other can be calculated accordingly.
Because the BER is usually defined at 10-12, it is too time consuming to conduct direct measurements in most cases. To accelerate the jitter tolerance qualification, we stress the receiver with controllable amounts of injected jitter. By varying the injected jitter in the input signal, we can make the receiver work at different higher BER levels, which are much less time-consuming to test. The jitter tolerance performance at low BER levels can then be extrapolated according to the measured jitter vs.
Careful timing extraction leads to a reduction in the number of transmission errors. A matched filter is a linear system that significantly alters the shape of both the signal and the noise in a way that increases the SNR. Figure 2-13 shows the structure of a binary matched filter receiver , . We next introduce the “one or zero” decision principle and set the stage to evaluate the BER performance of the binary matched filter receiver. ∫ T 0 dt s1 (t ) ∑ ∫ T 0 dt s0 (t ) Fig. 2-13. Binary matched filter receiver The receiver consists of two filters, one matching to S0 (t) and the other matching to S1 (t).
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