By Thomas M. Schmitt

Offers descriptions and useful examples of all ideas utilized to the research of surfactants from the characterization of business compounds to their selection in formulated items and their detection at hint degrees within the atmosphere. Literature is reviewed via 1990, with app

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Lignin sulfonates are obtained as byproducts of the sulfite process. These are widely dispersed, water-soluble lingosulfonic acids, with an average molecular weight greater than 100,000. They find a variety of uses as low-cost emulsifiers in areas such as ore processing and oil field chemicals. Impurities include sugars, such as glucose, mannose, xylose, and arabinose. Both dried powder and aqueous solutions are sold, usually without stringent specifications. Some purified products find their way into higher value-added applications, such as pesticide formulations.

Baker) conditioned in CHCl3. 5-mL aliquots of CHCl3. 5-mL methanol washes. The methanol solution is evaporated to dryness to expel CHCl3 and the residue is redissolved in water or methanol. The HPLC system should be capable of ternary gradient operation and have a column compartment thermostatted at 35°C. Detection is by UV absorbance at 225 nm. 6 × 250 mm. 0 with NaOH. 0 mL/min. A linear gradient is used, beginning with 10:50:40 TBAHSO4/water/acetonitrile. During the first 30 min, H2O is lowered to 10%, increasing CH3CN to 80%.

Eighty to ninety percent of the sulfonation occurs at internal carbon atoms rather than at the ends of the chain, with the Page 6 sulfonate group substituted almost uniformly on secondary carbons throughout the chain. 2 Typical Specifications ParameterTest methodActive agentTwo-phase titrationUnsulfonated material Pentane extraction from neutral or weakly basic 50:50 ethanol/water Monosulfonated material Petroleum ether extraction from acidic ethanol/water Disulfonated materialColumn chromatography separationMolecular weightTitration/gravimetric analysisAlkyl chain distributionHPLCOther testsAs for other sulfonates F Petroleum Sulfonates 1 Description A petroleum sulfonate component Petroleum sulfonates are prepared by sulfonation of hydrocarbons.

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Analysis of surfactants by Thomas M. Schmitt
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