By Neal T. Wright & Jaewan Yoon (Editors)
Program of GIS applied sciences in Port amenities and Operations administration discusses the new advances in GIS (Geographic info platforms) applied sciences for port pros. This committee record identifies potent GIS strategies for the administration of advanced port and harbor infrastructure and discusses in-depth the features, requisites, and boundaries of obtainable GIS purposes. It additionally offers beneficial GIS database innovations and software program integration assistance, an summary and dialogue of GIS information forms and map projections, and a number of other case stories targeting facility and operations administration
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Geometric range from a receiver to a satellite. The two fundamental GPS measurements for range (and hence position) determination (explained in Chapter 2, “Ranging Methods”) are the pseudorange (Eq. 2-6) and carrier-phase (Eq. 2-7) observations. The basic observation equations for these measurements are (Lachapelle et al. 1992; Langley 1993): Psr ϭ sr ϩ ds ϩ c(dts Ϫ dTr) ϩ dsion ϩ dstrop ϩ ( prx) ϩ ( pmult)sr ⌽sr ϭ sr ϩ ds ϩ c(dts Ϫ dTr) Ϫ dsion ϩ dstrop Ϫ Nrs ϩ (⌽rx) ϩ (⌽mult)sr (2-6) (2-7) where P sr is the pseudorange measurement by the GPS receiver to the satellite (m) sr is true range or “geometric” range (m) ds is the orbit error term (m) dts is the satellite clock error (m) dTr is the receiver clock error (m) dsion is the ionospheric delay term (m) dstrop is the tropospheric delay term (m) (prx) is the error in pseudorange measurement due to receiver noise (m) (pmult)sr is the error in pseudorange measurement due to multipath (m) c is the speed of light (msϪ1) ⌽sr is the carrier phase measurement by the GPS receiver to the satellite (m) Nsr is the carrier phase ambiguity between the GPS receiver and the satellite (cycles) is the wavelength of the carrier phase (m) (⌽rx) is the error in carrier phase measurement due to receiver noise (m) (⌽mult)sr is the error in carrier phase measurement due to multipath (m).
One receiver, designated as the “base,” is set up at a reference station the coordinates of which are known. The other receiver, designated as the “rover,” is used to determine its coordinates with respect to the base (reference) station. In this case, by subtracting the observations at the reference station from those at the rover, the single-difference equations are derived from Eqs. 2-6 and 2-7 in Chapter 2.
Multipath Errors Multipath is the error caused by nearby reflecting surfaces at the receiver location. Just as light reflects off a shiny surface, radio signals can be reflected by solid objects and surfaces. GPS signals cannot penetrate solid objects like buildings, 43 APPLIED GPS FOR ENGINEERS AND PROJECT MANAGERS 44 Figure 2-16. Amount of sunspots since January 1995, with a forecast up to 2020. Source: NOAA. thick tree canopies, cars, ships, and bridges. Instead, these objects deflect them, causing the signals to arrive at the receiver via multiple paths (Fig.
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