By Gisela Storz, Regine Hengge
Gain new perception on using bacterial rigidity responses to higher strive against bacterial an infection with antibiotics and enhance biotechnology.
- Reviews the titanic variety of new findings that experience drastically complicated the certainty of bacterial tension responses long ago 10 years.
- Explores basic regulatory ideas, together with the most recent findings from genomics experiences, together with new learn findings on either particular and basic rigidity responses.
- Details how tension responses have an effect on the interactions among micro organism and host cells and covers bacterial tension responses in numerous niches and groups, with an emphasis on severe environments.
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Additional info for Bacterial Stress Responses
Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:14724–14731. , A. Bren, M. Ronen, S. Itzkovitz, I. Kikoin, S. Shavit, W. Liebermeister, M. G. Surette, and U. Alon. 2006. A com prehensive library of fluorescent transcriptional reporters for Escherichia coli. Nat. Methods 3:623–628. , A. E. Mayo, R. Rosenberg, P. Bashkin, H. Sberro, M. Tsalyuk, M. G. Surette, and U. Alon. 2004. Just-in-time transcription program in metabolic pathways. Nat. Genet. 36:486–491. Bacterial Stress Responses, 2nd ed. , 2004). Understanding the cell transcriptional response thus requires a system-level view.
2004). This may result in a differentiation-like partition of cells into two populations, and may help cell populations to maintain mixed phenotypes so that they can better respond to different environments. PAR can also be designed with parameters that do not show bistability. In this case, PAR can allow circuits to respond sensitively to input signals while buffering noise (Hornung and Barkai, 2008). (ii) PAR slows down the response time of gene circuits. The reason for this slowdown is that when the levels of the TF are low, its production rate is also low, thereby increasing only when the TF concentration approaches the activation threshold for its own promoter.
Coli, which is regulated by the negatively autoregulated TF AraC, NAR increases the range of input signal (arabinose) over which its downstream genes respond (Madar, 2009). Theoretical analysis suggests that NAR generally increases input dynamic range because of an increase in TF levels as a function of its own inducer (Savageau, 2001). Thus, the potential benefit of this design is to allow sensitive response over a wide range of input signal concentrations. 22 BREN AND ALON Positive autoregulation In this network motif, the TF positively regulates the promoter of its own gene, resulting in features opposite to those of NAR.
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