By Nicole Meyer-Vernet

Creation to sunlight wind for researchers and graduate scholars in atmospheric physics and astrophysics.

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1959, Round-table discussion, J. Geophys. Res. 64 1691. [29] Title, A. 2000, Magnetic fields below, on and above the solar surface, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A 358 657. [30] Vsekhsvjatsky, S. K. 1963, in The Solar Corona, ed. J. W. Evans, London, Academic Press, p. 271. -P. 1980, The scientific objectives of the international solar polar mission, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A 297 565. -P. 1992, The Ulysses mission, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 92 207. [33] Zirker, J. B. 2002, Journey from the Center of the Sun, Princeton University Press.

1). These states are the result of a competition between thermal energy and intermolecular forces. In solids, the latter win, maintaining the atoms and/or molecules at nearly fixed positions, whereas thermal energy merely produces vibrations around these positions [9]. In gases on the contrary, thermal energy wins, making the particles almost completely free. Liquids are in between: the intermolecular forces are sufficiently strong to resist compression, but sufficiently weak to enable deformation and flow; it is not surprising that this intermediate state is less well understood than the other two [19].

More may be found in several excellent texts, for example [17], [6], [10], [4], [18], [16] and [7]. 1 What is a plasma? In any gas there are always a few atoms or molecules that manage to lose one electron, producing some small degree of ionisation. Being ionised is therefore What is a plasma? 43 not sufficient to qualify as a plasma. A useful definition may be instead that a plasma is: • a gas1 containing charged particles (together with neutral ones), which • is quasi-neutral • and exhibits collective behaviour.

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Basics of the Solar Wind by Nicole Meyer-Vernet
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