By Jack Caravelli

Presently after global battle II, the center East grew to become a locus for international locations looking to collect nuclear missiles and the potential to carry them to their enemies. Israel was once the 1st; Libya and Iraq go well with. Pakistan now possesses a considerable variety of nuclear guns, to which longtime rival India will doubtless reply. the consequences of the political and protection dynamics of the center East for the us and different countries are really profound and sobering. past Sand and Oil presents a nation-by-nation evaluate of the evolution of nuclear guns courses in what's most probably the world's so much politically volatile quarter. an in depth evaluate of Iran's clients for turning into a nuclear guns state—and how Israel, the Arab international, and the overseas group will reply to that outcome—is additionally integrated.

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Additional resources for Beyond Sand and Oil: The Nuclear Middle East (Praeger Security International)

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Fissile material, once it has been weaponized, also requires a delivery means. Through the years, nuclear weapons states have developed multiple means for delivering nuclear weapons to targets, ranging from battlefield artillery shells, cruise missiles, aircraft, and both short- and long-range missiles. In Israel’s case both the development of a reliable weapons design and means of delivery were in their nascent stages in the mid-1960s but progress in meeting each of the final requirements for weapon design and delivery means were being addressed.

For various reasons, including that Egypt and others had carried out large military exercises during Ramadan in the past and that Israel’s military was superior to that of any Arab coalition, the Arab military buildup was largely dismissed as not being immediately threatening by the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) and Israel’s political leadership until almost the last minute. ) Israeli reserves were not called up until about six hours before fighting commenced. The consequences of Israeli delay and miscalculation almost proved catastrophic in the war ’s early stages.

53 The Yom Kippur War also is a classic case study in strategic surprise. For various reasons, including that Egypt and others had carried out large military exercises during Ramadan in the past and that Israel’s military was superior to that of any Arab coalition, the Arab military buildup was largely dismissed as not being immediately threatening by the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) and Israel’s political leadership until almost the last minute. ) Israeli reserves were not called up until about six hours before fighting commenced.

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Beyond Sand and Oil: The Nuclear Middle East (Praeger by Jack Caravelli
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