By Noboru Motohashi

Heterocyclic chemistry is the most important department of chemistry masking two-thirds of the chemical literature and this e-book covers the new issues of frontier learn summarized by way of reputed scientists within the field.

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Extra resources for Bioactive Heterocycles VI: Flavonoids and Anthocyanins in Plants, and Latest Bioactive Heterocycles I

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For an understanding of the bioavailability and mechanistic pathways of the cytoprotection by IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE, commercially known as ActiVin), a series of in vitro and in vivo studies were carried out. On the comparative protective abilities of GSPE, and vitamins C and E, their single and combination administrations were assessed against a smokeless tobacco extract (STE)-induced oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cell death in a primary culture of normal human oral keratinocytes.

Napus was found to lose other flavonoids when the plant was exposed to ultraviolet-A radiation (UVA) (320–400 nm) and/or UVB [65]. Interestingly, the levels of all the extractable flavonoids in the leaves of B. napus plants are decreased in a dose-dependent manner in response to UVA exposure. Additionally, the accumulation of the extractable flavonoids was examined by a shift from the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) + UVA to PAR + UVB to assess whether the preexposure of the UVA affects the UVB-induced flavonoid accumulation.

Pycnogenol from natural sources (200 µg/mL) prolonged the ascorbate radical lifetime to 80 min, four times that of the control (20 min). The flavonoids could either be regenerating ascorbic acid from dehydroascorbic acid (oxidized form), or interacting with ascorbate oxidase, thus preventing a binding of ascorbic acid with ascorbate oxidase. When p-cresol, a known ascorbate oxidase inhibitor, was added to the ascorbic acid-ascorbate oxidase reaction mixture, the ascorbate radical signal intensity was dramatically reduced and did not display the time-dependent decay observed with the flavonoids.

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Bioactive Heterocycles VI: Flavonoids and Anthocyanins in by Noboru Motohashi
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