By S.K. Duggal

This booklet highlights: mechanical and actual houses of assorted fabrics with emphasis on power and sturdiness; impact of assorted components on those homes; motives of defects, their prevention and treatments; and, trying out strategies of fabrics. This variation contains: fabrics alterations in chapters facing cement, concrete, lime and so forth; up to date trying out strategies; a variety of revision of information and substitutions; and, clever and composite fabrics as a separate bankruptcy. The booklet may function a via textual content for undergraduate scholars of civil engineering, structure and development know-how. working towards engineers, architects and contractors might additionally locate it a worthwhile reference resource.

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Addition of water to the soil at the dumps is necessary for the easy mixing and workability, but the addition of water should be controlled in such a way that it may not create a problem in moulding and drying. Excessive moisture content may effect the size and shape of the finished brick. Structural Clay Products 19 Tempering: Tempering consists of kneading the earth with feet so as to make the mass stiff and plastics (by plasticity, we mean the property which wet clay has of being permanently deformed without cracking).

2. 18 Building Materials ¬¾ Brick Fig. 2 Operations Involved in Manufacturing of Clay Bricks Preparation of Brick Earth It consists of the following operations. Unsoiling: The soil used for making building bricks should be processed so as to be free of gravel, coarse sand (practical size more than 2 mm), lime and kankar particles, organic matter, etc. , is removed after clearing the trees and vegetation. Digging: After removing the top layer of the earth, proportions of additives such as fly ash, sandy loam, rice husk ash, stone dust, etc.

5. resistant to atmosphere and dampness. 6. durability. Uses They are used as roofing material for low cost houses in big cities and also used to give a pleasing look from architectural point of view. Testing of Tiles The burnt, clay roofing tiles must comply with two tests—the transverse strength test and the water absorption test. The flooring tiles in addition to these tests must also be tested for impact. Ridge tiles are tested for water absorption and breaking strength. Transverse Strength Test (IS: 2690) consists of applying the load along the centre line at right angles to the length of the tile (which has been immersed in water for twenty four hours) supported on the rounded edges of wood bearers.

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Building Materials, Third Edition by S.K. Duggal
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