By David Bevan
Those overseas A/AS-level technology Revision courses supply exam-focused texts to steer scholars during the content material and talents of the direction to organize them for his or her AS and A-level tests. each one advisor within the sequence presents: - creation: containing an outline of the direction and the way it truly is assessed, recommendation on revision and taking the exam papers. - content material suggestions: presents a precis of the proof and ideas it is advisable comprehend for the exam. - talents: explains the data-handling abilities it is important to solution a few of the questions within the written papers. It additionally explains the sensible talents that you'll want on the way to good within the useful exam. - Questions and solutions: includes a specimen exam paper so you might test, through a collection of student's solutions for every query, with reviews from an examiner that can assist you establish precisely what's required within the examination.
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Extra resources for Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry: Revision Guide
Others, such as 9 V batteries or 12 V car batteries, are indeed ‘batteries of cells’. 9 A dry cell The reactions in a dry cell are as follows: Zn(s) → Zn 2+(aq) + 2e - MnO2(s) + H 2O(l) + e - → MnO(OH) + OH-(aq) The problem with all such cells is that they have a finite lifetime because the materials get used up. Batteries of various sorts have been developed over the years giving different voltages, longer life and the ability to be recharged. This is a result of the huge increase in the use of portable electronic devices such as iPods, computers and mobile phones.
3), which uses Hess’s law. 3 you can see that: +108 + 121 + 496 - 348 + DH5o = -411 kJ mol-1 +377 + DH5o = -411 kJ mol-1 DH5o = -788 kJ mol-1 55 6 Electrochemistry 6 Electrochemistry This chapter contains a fairly small amount of material needed for AS, and a much larger section of material which is tested at A2. Redox processes The word redox comes from two familiar words — reduction and oxidation — and refers to what happens in chemical reactions when electrons are gained or lost. When a metal is oxidised, it loses electrons, for example: Mg → Mg2+ + 2e - When magnesium is burned in air, the electrons are picked up by oxygen, reducing it to the oxide ion: ½O2 + 2e - → O2- Oxidation and reduction do not only occur with elements — for example, ions such as iron(II) ions can be oxidised to iron(III) ions: Fe2+ Fe 3+ + e - Reduction of one ion to form another ion can also occur, such as in a manganate(VII) titration: MnO 4- + 8H+ + 5e - Mn 2++ 4H 2O You may be given equations and asked for the change in oxidation state or oxidation number of one of the elements present.
9 A comparison of the boiling points of some hydrogen compounds Many elements form compounds with hydrogen called hydrides. 9(a). 9(b)). Although for the second and subsequent elements in each group you get the expected pattern, the first element in each group shows a much higher boiling point than expected. The reason for this is that these compounds have significantly stronger bonds between the particles. These are hydrogen bonds, which were discussed in Chapter 3. Another unusual property of water is that its solid form (ice) is less dense than the liquid form.
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