By F.G.A. Stone and Robert West (Eds.)
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Extra info for Catalysis and Organic Syntheses
Among the earliest studies was that of Moffat (105). Poly-2-vinylpyridine, cross-linked with 4-8% divinylbenzene, was used as the coordinating support. The amount of cross-linking was found to be critical: too little gave a soluble polymer, while too much gave an intractable material which absorbed little metal. Cobalt was used as t h e catalyst, and the reaction was conducted at 15O0-2O0"C and 2000-3000 psi of lil H,/CO. 48 ROY L. PRUETT It was concluded that in this case an equilibrium existed which gave 100 ppm of soluble cobalt at reaction temperature.
Again, high pressure favored the a-isomer, and 400 atm resulted in a 91% yield of this product. The results with a$-unsaturated esters, and in particular the effects of temperature and pressure of hydrogen and of carbon monoxide, have been interpreted (71) in terms of an intermediate alkylrhodium carbonyl, as outlined in Eq. (31). The branched-chain alkylrhodium carbonyl was pictured as being formed first. This could then be hydrogenated immediately to the a-isomer (ll),or isomerized and then hydrogenated to the p-isomer (12).
1-Hexene was hydroformylated with 40 atm of 3/4 H,/CO to produce 5696 n-heptaldehyde and 24% 2-methylhexaldehyde. Significant isomerization to internal olefins also occurred. Allurn and co-workers (110) studied several polymer types and focused on macroreticular, high surface area, cross-linked polystyrene. The best polymer found was AMBERLITE XAD-2, spherical beads with a high surface area of 120 m2/g. A linkage for rhodium was provided by attachment of a -CH,PPh, group: + Rh(CO),(acac) + [RhCl(C,H,,)], - 2 .
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