By Colleen A. Roach

By way of exploring the function of either tradition and the mass media, this quantity fills a niche within the literature on struggle and peace. impressive students supply an outline of serious mass media learn and open up totally new views at the ongoing debate over communications matters in struggle and peace. The contributions compile universal topics together with the military-industrial-communications advanced, cultural imperialism and transnational keep watch over of communications. a variety of views are coated, resembling gender concerns, language learn and bureaucratization.

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But this theory does not hold water. Hallin (1986), whose study of the media's coverage of Vietnam is regarded as one of the definitive works, argues convincingly that this is one of the "most persistent myths" about Vietnam. He states that the media (television in particular) did not present a sober view of the war "until the public, Washington, and the soldiers in the field had already lost confidence that the war could be won. Television, in other words, was more a follower than a leader of public opinion" (Hallin, 1991, p.

As early as 1953, one researcher found that BBC television programming broadcast dur­ ing a 2-week period had about half as much violence as a sample of television programs broadcast in New York City. S. programs were about three times as violent as British-made shows (Gerbner, 1988, pp. 17-18). Women do not fare well in the media's panorama of violence. Gerbner (1988) is one of the few male researchers to focus on women's portrayal on television: Males outnumber females by at least 3 to 1 in all major media presentations.

Although myths can change over time, they are thought to be much closer to some profound idea of a culture's "truth," not unlike Galtung's idea of cosmology. And although there are as many different myths as there are cultures, mythologists such as Campbell also point to a certain universality in myths: all cultures, for example, seem to have myths of the battle between good and evil, the journeys of a hero, and so on. When one looks more closely at some of the modern-day cultural icons of the war system, such as the Ramboesque myth of he-man white superiority and the Star Wars personification of American technological supremacy, one can appreciate the overlap between mythology and ideology.

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Communication and Culture in War and Peace by Colleen A. Roach
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