By Bary W Pollack

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Increased noise may, for example, arise from junctions that go into the forward region, whereas the strong nonlinearities involved with the voltage clipping result in harmonics. 2 Automatic gain control A second method for amplitude stabilization is to use an Automatic Gain Control 15 (AGC). AGC: the oscillation amplitude is measured and used in a negative feedback control loop that stabilizes the oscillator amplitude to a set value after start-up. Main reasons to use AGC are as follows [62] Fast and reliable start-up.

1 The ideal oscillator The basic function of an oscillator is to generate a periodic signal with certain properties. An ideal oscillator generates a signal that only has wanted properties. The signal waveform can have any form and any number of harmonics. The output voltage of an 1 A timing reference is a system that produces an output signal with a known time behavior [50]. 13 14 CHAPTER 2. ideal harmonic oscillator (see Figure 2. 1(a)) with angular frequency peak amplitude in V, can be written as OSCILLATORS in rad/s and where is the initial phase at t = 0 of In the frequency domain, this is equivalent to a discrete spectral line with amplitude2 at angular frequency This means that all carrier power is located in an infinitely small bandwidth around The output signal of tunable harmonic oscillator (see Figure 2.

1(d). In Chapter 4 we will see that this limits the achievable image rejection in transceivers. 3. 2 only has odd harmonics. In general, an oscillator output signal also has even harmonics. In balanced architectures, these are usually significantly lower than the odd harmonics. The application determines whether the harmonics of an oscillator output signal are unwanted or wanted. For example, if an oscillator is used as a clock generator, the harmonics are generally wanted. In that case, zero-crossings in the time domain are less sensitive to noise from the circuits where the clock-signal is used.

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Compiler techniques by Bary W Pollack
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