By Hossein Askari

Explaining how the cost of aggression is low adequate that governments don't keep away from conflicts, this ebook makes use of examples drawn from contemporary conflicts within the Persian Gulf to ascertain many dimensions of prices incurred via conflict and proposes a personal area technique to warfare's low-priced.

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This episode proved to be a highly controversial episode both in UN history and in his tenure as secretary-general. While all leaders, especially those from the advanced economies, espouse peace, justice, and freedom, their actions invariably belie their Introduction and Overview 15 noble words. The powerful countries seem to pursue their perceived shortterm selfish interests and seem to care little if their policies increase conflicts and wars around the world. Leaders from both the East and West continue to lobby on the international scene for their arms industries.

Congressional Research Service, 2010. 90 Total Defense % GDP in Peak Year of War A Glance at Recent Conflicts and Wars 35 of the conflict and of overall defense spending as a share of GDP in the peak. In the most comprehensive (including veteran’s benefits and interest expense of debt-financed wars) ongoing project (Eisenhower Research Project) on the cost of wars to the United States since 9/11, Lutz, Crawford, and their associates have calculated the cost of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq.

Depending on the form of national governance, the citizenry’s only Introduction and Overview 13 two options may be to suffer or to rise up and overthrow their ruler. As for the ruler, he may not suffer at all and may even benefit. Are leaders given the incentive to think through the details of what their actions may lead to? Do they understand, much less worry about, the consequences of their aggression for their country, for themselves, and for their adversaries? Do leaders and citizens consider how their aggressive actions today may sow the seeds of bigger hostilities in the future?

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Conflicts and Wars: Their Fallout and Prevention by Hossein Askari
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