By Jill Jonnes

"Superb. [A] exceptional narrative" (The Wall road Journal ) concerning the debatable development of recent York's loved unique Penn Station and its tunnels.

As bestselling books like Ron Chernow's Titan and David McCullough's The nice Bridge verify, readers are serious about the grand personalities and schemes that populated big apple on the shut of the 19th century. Conquering Gotham re- creates the riveting fight waged by means of the good Pennsylvania Railroad to construct Penn Station and the huge process of tunnels that will attach water-bound new york to the remainder of the continent by way of rail. Historian Jill Jonnes tells a lovely story of snarling plutocrats, engineering feats, and backroom politicking jam-packed with the main colourful figures of Gilded Age big apple.

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Such changes may affect the plugging behavior of the pile. The mechanism of plugging phenomenon at the toe of vertically loaded open-ended piles was observed in this study. Three series of static penetration experiments with model piles were conducted by using a micro-focus X-ray CT scanner (Kikuchi et al. 2006). And a series of large scale model pile penetration experiments was conducted in a model sandy ground to investigate the bearing capacity of open-ended piles. The model piles used in this study were open-ended piles and closed-ended piles.

Relatively large movement of the soil inside the pile was observed at the penetration depth from 18 to 21 mm. But little movement was observed in the next stage of penetration. It was confirmed that repeated production and destruction of plug occurred at these steps. The rate of resistance increment rose again after 33 mm Figure 8. Images of ground displacements from CT images using PIV method. Black arrows show major direction and the amount of displacement of the ground during the 3 mm penetration.

In this series, the model pile was set up in the model ground at the initial penetration depth of 50 mm. The container and the loading device in this series of experiment were the same as the previous case. 5 mm in thickness. The pile was made of aluminum. 29 Figure 7. Relationship between penetration resistance and depth. 50 mm to 98 mm in depth. The entire pile penetration experiment was conducted in the micro-focus X-ray CT scanner chamber. The relationship between penetration resistance and depth is shown in Figure 7.

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Conquering Gotham: Building Penn Station and Its Tunnels by Jill Jonnes
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