By Jeremy Appleton

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1975; 1976). 6% of the daily creatine pool is degraded to creatinine in the muscle and excreted in the urine.  Once generated, creatinine enters the circulation by simple diffusion and is filtered in a nonenergy­dependent process by the glomerulus and excreted in urine (Chanutin 1926; Greenhaff 1997b; Walker 1960a, 1960b, 1979).  Also, creatinine excretion may increase as much as 10­fold with certain pathological conditions such as kidney disease.  Most of the creatine in muscle is stored in the form of PCr.

Creatine supplied in vitro increases the rate of synthesis of myosin heavy chain and actin formed both in vitro and in vivo.  Creatine affects only the rate of synthesis, not the rate of degradation.  Creatine affects only cells already synthesizing muscle proteins, not the cellular events during myoblast proliferation or during cell fusion.  Creatine increases overall synthesis ofribonucleic acid (RNA) and seems to preferentially induce specific classes of RNA.  The effect of creatine is manifested in different stages of the synthesis of muscle proteins; however, the primary effect is connected with the nucleus and is accomplished at the transcription level.

From an ergogenic viewpoint, resynthesis of PCr could be the critical factor during sustained very high intensity exercise.  Modified from Podium Kreatin.  There PCr regenerates ATP from the ADP formed during contraction. Dietary creatine intake accounts for about half of the body's daily need for creatine, with the remainder obtained through endogenous creatine synthesis from the amino acids glycine, arginine, and methionine.  First, PCr serves as a cellular buffer through the following reaction: Phosphocreatine may serve as a cellular buffer through the following reaction: It has been proposed that one of the primary functions of the phosphagen system is to buffer elevations in ADP rather than to simply resynthesize ATP— a possible means to prevent premature fatigue.

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Creatine by Jeremy Appleton
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