By Marc Howard Ross

Ethnic clash frequently specializes in culturally charged symbols and rituals that evoke robust feelings from both sides. Marc Howard Ross examines battles over different cultural expressions, together with Islamic headscarves in France, parades in Northern eire, holy websites in Jerusalem and accomplice flags within the American South to suggest a psychocultural framework for figuring out ethnic clash, in addition to obstacles to, and possibilities for, its mitigation. His research explores how tradition frames pursuits, buildings demand-making and shapes how rivals can locate universal flooring to provide positive results to long term disputes. He specializes in individuals' bills of clash to spot emotionally major matters, and the ability of cultural expressions to hyperlink members to greater identities and form motion. Ross exhibits that, opposite to well known trust, tradition doesn't unavoidably exacerbate clash; fairly, the built nature of psychocultural narratives can facilitate profitable clash mitigation throughout the improvement of extra inclusive narratives and identities.

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My own view is that both extremes are caricatures in their denial of the other position. 21 A second significant difference is the power of rational interest maximization versus affective 19 20 21 Freud’s expression ‘‘the narcissism of minor differences’’ is very apt here. Normal development, facilitated by what Winnicott (1965) calls the good-enough mother, encourages both the attachment of the individual to others and separationindividuation, as a person builds both a sense of self and connections to a progressively wider circle of attachment (Mahler, Pine, and Bergman 1975).

The new cultural expressions and narratives that develop in peacemaking and peacebuilding processes begin with the parties’ frames of reference, and their recognition, often implicit, that cognitive approaches aimed at persuading opponents to change their positions are almost always efforts that fail when used alone. A more productive approach must acknowledge the threats to identity that groups perceive and seek to diminish them and in so doing to create space to actively and jointly envision alternatives to ongoing confrontation.

23 What psychocultural analyses can and can’t answer Psychocultural analyses often tell us little about the specific interests that will emerge as critical in a conflict and why the parties define their identities around one set of concerns rather than another. While psychocultural analyses can offer plausible explanations for the definition of a conflict once it has emerged, the theory behind the approach is not yet powerful in suggesting why one form of expression will become so much more contested than another.

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Cultural contestation in ethnic conflict by Marc Howard Ross
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