By Paul Crook
This ebook demanding situations the acquired view that Darwinism generated basically competitive and warlike social values and pugnacious photographs of humankind. Paul criminal reconstructs the influential discourse of "peace biology," whose liberal imaginative and prescient used to be of a essentially unfastened humanity, now not fettered via iron legislation of organic necessity or ruled by means of violent genes. via exploring a gamut of Darwinian readings of background and battle, normally within the English-speaking international ahead of 1919, this research throws vital new mild on militarism, peace pursuits, the origins of worldwide conflict I and British social notion.
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Additional info for Darwinism, War and History: The Debate over the Biology of War from the 'Origin of Species' to the First World War
His theory of interests was profoundly to influence Albion Small, leader of the Chicago school of sociology, and Small vigorously disseminated the Austrian's subtle ideas within American sociology. ) Appropriately Ratzenhofer projected sociology as an all-encompassing queen of the 'psychical sciences', capable of demonstrating all social regularities. He justified this philosophically with a curious blending of Comtean positivism and German monism. Hopefully problems such as war could be solved when humans learnt to raise politics ' to a scientific discipline upon the basis of sociological intelligence'.
The optimistic radicals of the Enlightenment pictured humankind as perfectible and foretold a golden future based upon reason, mutual aid and world peace. (Even sordid functions such as sex and reproduction would wither away, according to Godwin. )41 Malthus insisted that the real world was plagued by intractable problems such as the population explosion, and a constant struggle for food. In the more pessimistic first edition of the Essay on population (1798) he saw the responses to the crowding crisis as mainly 'vice and misery'.
He followed Darwin in denouncing modern militarism as a type of damaging artificial selection. 2 There was an anti-capitalist (or anti-Manchesterturn) thread in Haeckel's thought, which used organismic and holistic models derived from nature. He accepted the role of struggle in selection theory, a precondition to progress, but he used physiological parallels to underline the nationalistic principles of integration and mutual dependence in social evolution. ) By contrast the medical scientist Rudolph Virchow feared that Haeckelian Darwinism might lead to the ogre of socialism rather than a powerful fatherland, and he insisted that organisms were federal rather than centralised unities.
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