By Director of the Nobel Institute and Professor Adjunct Geir Lundestad, Olav Njolstad

On the flip of the twenty first Century, the area was once instantly gripped by way of the conflict on Terrorism through the Iraq warfare. In mirrored image, the 20 th Century was once a interval marked via large technological and financial development — however it used to be additionally the main violent century in human historical past. It witnessed horrendous global wars, in addition to the conflicts through the chilly conflict. Why do wars over and over erupt between countries, relatively the nice Powers? What are the first components that force international locations to violence — strength, status, ideology or territory? Or is it encouraged by means of natural worry and distrust? Peering nervously on the twenty first Century, we wonder if American supremacy and globalization can help verify peace and balance. Or will shifts in energy with the emergence of recent fiscal super-nations result in extra tensions and conflicts during this century?

Together with 29 Peace Nobel laureates, an excellent staff of students accrued in Oslo, Norway, on December 6, 2001, for the three-day Nobel Centennial Symposium to debate ''The Conflicts of the twentieth Century and the suggestions for the twenty first Century''. learn this e-book for the students' candid insights and analyses, in addition to their thought-provoking perspectives at the elements that resulted in conflicts within the twentieth Century and even if the twenty first Century could be a extra peaceable one. this can be a infrequent — and doubtless the easiest and in basic terms — ebook compilation of the hugely highbrow analyses via international specialists and Nobel Peace laureates at the perennial problems with struggle & Peace.

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When the citizens who bear the burdens of war elect their governments, wars become impossible. Furthermore, citizens appreciate that the benefits of trade can be enjoyed most fully only under conditions of peace. S. Japan and the European allies, makes for peace. Moreover, the growth in the numbers of liberal democracies presages the arrival of world peace, fulfilling the vision of Immanuel Kant's "perpetual peace" among free republics. A quite different ideology of world politics animates the rhetoric of national fascist dictatorships.

I am grateful for research assistance by Matteo Giglioli and suggestions from the participants and organizers of the Nobel Centennial Seminar, December, 2001. 2 By "ideology" I mean a system of ideas and ideals forming the basis of an economic or political theory or movement. 3 For a thoughtful and yet sweeping look at world history in these terms see Philip Bobbin's The Shield of Achilles (New York: Knopf, 2002). 42 Michael W. Doyle These are very large questions. 4 Does a commitment to freedom or human rights have an effect different from an equally strong commitment to racial or national superiority or glory?

194-195. 1939), Ideologies and Polities 45 course of world politics. 13 Correspondingly, drawing on classic philosophies of world politics, I would like to illustrate the place of ideologies in constructing theoretical explanations of world politics. Ideologies of freedom and nation count, I will suggest, but only in the context of a more comprehensive political theory. But, in the end, taking into account the intervening complications, I want to defend one generalization, albeit with qualifications and only when democracy and liberalism are joined: together, they can make for an expanding world peace among fellow liberal democracies and this is an outcome well-worth promoting.

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War and Peace in the 20th Century and Beyond by Director of the Nobel Institute and Professor Adjunct Geir
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